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Mario Eduardo Figun (Author of Anatomia Odontologica Funcional Y Aplicada)

This is especially important in order to avoid inaccurate radiographic interpretations, misguided diagnoses, and consequently, compromised patient treatment.

When maxillary premolars have three canals, two of them are buccal and one is palatal In the mandibular ramus, each side includes the head and neck of the mandible, mandibular notch, mandibular foramen, mandibular canal, lingual, and anti- lingula Rev Odonto Cienc ; Roentgenographic evaluation of alveolar bone changes in periodontal disease. Of the 39 specimens examined in the present investigation, only 35 could be classified according to the number of root canals and apical foramina, based on the findings of radiographic examination.

Such information includes visualization of the dental structure and bone support, detection of cavities and periapical lesions, evaluation of alveolar bone loss associated with periodontal disease, and evaluation of numerous other dental and bone-related conditions 1.

SEM identified a higher number of AF than radiographs in Sutalo J, Njemirovskij V.

Anatomia odontologica / Dental Anatomy : Funcional y aplicada / Functional and Applied

funcinoal The evolution and application of the dental maxillofacial imaging modalities. In a study by Rees et al. In the posterior region of the mandible the attachment of the alveolus to the bone becomes evident by the presence of an elevation known as oblique line. The SEM images were printed out and given to two observers together with information on the diameters of each foramen.

Thus it is relevant to suggest that the use of the vertical angle variation is an important resource for periapical radiographs which enables a more detailed analysis of the alveolar crest of the mandibular molar region.

The maxillary 1st premolar may present a large number of anatomic variations. The alveolar process is responsible for the implantation of the mandibular teeth, is characterized by eight bilateral sockets formed by the anterolateral and posterolateral bone walls, and is separated by independent bone septa. The objective of the present research was to identify and quantify the frequency of the oblique line projection over the alveolar crests of the mandibular molars in periapical radiographs.


Radiographs were taken with files inside the root canals and the specimens were classified as follows: The roof of the pulp chamber was completely removed and access to the root canals was obtained without touching the floor of the chamber.

The alveolar process corresponds to the compact bone layer that covers the dental alveolus, enclosing the root lamina dura and limiting the interdental crest alveolar crest 5.

According to Seltzer and Bender 16it is impossible to differentiate between the resorption that occurs in the vestibular alveolar crest from that in the lingual alveolar crest using periapical radiographs.

However, 55 radiographs It is continuous with the anterior border of the ramus, reaching the distal side of the first molar, and serves as the attachment for some facial muscles 5,9. The three canals were clearly differentiated in all teeth with buccal roots bifurcating in the cervical and middle thirds.

A water-cooled carborundum disc was used to section funcionak of the apical portion of the buccal root perpendicularly to the long axis of the tooth. Mesiodistal and buccolingual roentgenographic investigation of 7, root canals. There was also interference between the second and the third molars in radiographs The findings of this study also revealed that the apical portion of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars is extremely thin.

This anatomic variation adds difficulties to endodontic treatment, and therefore, coronal access to root canals should be different for these teeth. Rev ABO Nac ;1: When correctly performed, this technique provides images and important information regarding the diagnosis complementing the clinical exam. The classification of internal anatomy utilized in this study does not follow Vertucci’s classification 20which is routinely referred to in the literature.

This study duncional the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars with longitudinal sulcus because it has been reported 16 that the internal anatomic variations of these teeth are closely associated to the presence of a sulcus in their roots. Anatomia, Patologia y Terapia.


According to Freitas et al. Root canal treatment znatomia this tooth is difficult because of the direction and longitudinal depression of its roots, the different con figurations of the pulp chamber and the difficulty in visualizing the apex on radiographs 1. In some cases, the exploratory files did not achieve the full length of the root canal, but were very close to the apical foramen and so the classification of the specimen was obvious.

The purposes of this study were to assess radiographically the number of canals of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars with longitudinal buccal sulcus, and to compare the number of apical foramina AF found on radiographs fhncional that revealed by scanning electron microscopy Funcipnal. Therefore, further research should investigate at what level the lateral apical preparation should stop in these roots to avoid endodontic treatment failure. As far as we could ascertain, only one study 16 has described the presence of sulcus or bifurcation in the roots of maxillary 1st premolars as a variation of the internal anatomy.

Defects ranging in depth from 1 to 2 mm were not visible in the radiographs. De Deus QD Editor. The cortical bone of the alveolus is formed by the lamina dura and the alveolar crest. The results of radiographic and SEM examinations were tabulated and analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon nonparametric test.

It is likely that these teeth had been extracted for orthodontic reasons because their dental crowns were intact. The incidence of the overlap was However, the oblique line is often projected at the cervical thirds of the alveoli, overlapping with alveolar crests, which can hamper the interpretation of periodontal diseases 5.

Different root configurations have been described 1,3, based on the number of roots Table 1. They concluded that teeth with a larger number of sulcus and with deeper and more extensive sulcus show more internal root variations.