placed in context of the recently approved ASTM Practice E alternative means of executing this ASTM Practice, its objective being to minimize . E – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Referenced Documents ASTM Standards:3 D Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity. improper air/fuel ratio. There are test methods for laboratory grade FTIR measurement as well as for portable field testing. ASTM E describes the standard.
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Size px x x x x Sequential samples over the course of the overhaul period are more likely to yield normally distributed results. A common method is to locate the secondary phase-delayed centerburst in the interferrogram recorded for the empty cell and remove it by computer manipulation.
Such limits should be established in conjunction with advice and guidance from the machinery manufacturer and maintenance group. Since there are no other spectral features in the region at cm-1, this area is used to aastm the level of soot in a sample as is shown in Fig. Molecular analysis of lubricants and hydraulic fluids by FT-IR spectroscopy produces direct information on molecular species of interest, including additives, fluid breakdown products and adtm contaminants, and thus complements wear e24112 and other analyses used in a condition monitoring program 1, In the case where salt windows are used, when oil is introduced into the cell the fringe pattern is made much weaker because the refractive index of the salt window is relatively asttm to that of an oil sample.
NOTE 9—Calibrated methods are based on standard linear regression models. Conventional methods such as gas chromatography or flash point make use of the lower boiling range, while the infrared approach examines wstm aromatic content to indicate if fuel is present. It is the change in base oil aromatic content that is the major factor leading to errors from reference mismatch. Absorbance values related to the thickness of sample exposed to light are reported.
Spectral characteristics of glycol contamination are shown in Fig. This is not considered a problem because of the greater significance the presence of glycol has to engine operation. The information in the remainder of this section provides more detail about the individual parameters. Oxidation, nitration and sulfonation of base stocks are monitored as evidence of aetm. Contaminants monitored include water, soot, ethylene glycol, fuels and incorrect oil.
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Area to Height at Height at Verification awtm Min to Min to Min to As noted in 9. While soot has no specific frequency of absorption in the infrared spectrum, it causes a shift in the baseline of the spectrum due to absorption and scattering of light. We need your help! This effect can be seen by looking at Fig. The formation of nitrogen fixation products is most significant in gasoline and natural gas engines as well as some diesel systems that use exhaust gas re-circulation.
Such statistical analyses are a tool used in establishing alarm limits for condition monitoring tests.
The following are provided only as an example. Increase in viscosity due to thickning of the oil Increase in the acidity of the oil resulting asrm increase in Acid Number Qstm Increase in insolubles. Excessive water levels may cause ast, lubricant breakdown reading to be higher than the actual level. However, glycol has other characteristic peaks that differentiate it from water around, and cm-1 as can be seen in Fig.
The point of maximum intensity will vary as the oil and conditions of its use are changed. It is usually only a consideration in diesel engines but could be indicative of carburetor or injector problems with other fuel systems.
The baseline shift caused by soot is affected by the amount of soot present and the effective particle size.
This band is a fairly specific measure of over basing additive consumption and directly relates to the TBN assay for engine oils.
No other units d2412 measurement are included in this standard. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. The calibrations prepared for diesel fuel and gasoline may not accurately reflect the fuels in use in particular regions of the world. In this case the maximum negative peak in the range from to cm-1 with baseline points over the same range is used as shown in Fig. Please fill this form, we will try to respond as soon as possible.
Molecular analysis e241 lubricants and hydraulic fluids by FT-IR spectroscopy produces direct information on molecular species of interest, including additives, fluid breakdown products and external contaminants, and thus complements wear metal and other analyses used in a condition monitoring program 13- 2. A number of physical property tests complement wear metal analysis and are used to provide information on lubricant condition for example, Test Methods D, D, and D For this reason, the measurement area developed for monitoring levels and trends of ZDDP has been found to be equally useful for monitoring tricresyl phosphate TCP.
For example, infrared spectroscopy cannot determine wear metal levels or any other type of elemental analysis.
ASTM E2412 – 10
In some cases, notably winter diesel fuel, the peak used for fuel residue is broader than that shown in Fig. Verify that the frequency distribution is approximately normally distributed.
Current edition approved May 1, This is not considered a problem because of the greater significance the 16 E — 10 intensities observed in the difference spectrum of the in-service oil.
In particular, liquid ast cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride MCT detectors are known to exhibit significant nonlinearities.
Calculations should be made based on the actual amount of glycol-based antifreeze added, not on the amount of the Contaminants monitored include water, soot, ethylene glycol, fuels and incorrect oil. Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. If too many examples of failures are included, the distribution may be broad and calculated limits may be too high. As previously noted, building calibration curves for measurement parameters when pure or prepared standards are available is possible.
Originally approved in